Bob Gaglardi School of Business and Economics

Bachelor of Arts - Economics Major/Minor

The Economics Major introduces students to the core body of knowledge in the discipline. In addition, students improve their abilities to conduct pricing, cost-benefit and program analysis and decision making. Finally, they learn to analyze the economics of the regulatory process and the reaction of businesses to the regulatory environments. Emphasis is placed on the application of basic economic tools to policy areas.

 Learning outcomes

Upon completion of this program, students are able to:

  1. Discuss the theories and principles of microeconomics including trade and comparative advantage, the functioning of markets, consumer theory, uncertainty and risk, production and costs, market structure under varying competitive conditions, price theory, public good provisions, externalities and other market failures, environmental protection, taxation and welfare economics.
  2. Discuss the theories and principles of macroeconomics including economic fluctuations, growth and development; unemployment; inflation, interest rates, deficits and debt, balance of payments and exchange rates, fiscal, monetary and various other polices using economic growth models, aggregate demand and supply as well as other applicable models.
  3. Collect, analyze and interpret relevant economic information from multiple sources.
  4. Demonstrate how quantitative/statistical methods and software packages can be used to examine economic data.
  5. Describe the role of government and institutions in the economy including taxation, spending, regulation and production.
  6. Integrate ethical concerns including efficiency, fairness, equity and individual freedom in policy development.
  7. Analyze the behaviour of individuals, businesses and industries in market-based systems; social issues; and the challenges of developing economies using different microeconomic and macroeconomic theories and principles.
  8. Assess and revise public policies addressing both market and non-market issues.
  9. Apply economic theories and principles in a professional setting.
 Major requirements

The Economics Major requires the completion of at least 51 credits consisting of 45 credits in economics, 3 credits in mathematics and 3 credits from disciplines within the Faculty of Arts. From the 45 credits in economics, a minimum of 30 credits must be at the upper level (3000 and 4000 levels) of which no less than 6 credits must be at the 4000 level.

Students normally declare a major at the beginning of their third year, but they must meet specific lower level requirements to be admitted.

Lower Level Requirements

MATH 1140
Calculus 1 (3,1.5,0) or (5,0,0)

MATH 1140 Calculus 1 (3,1.5,0) or (5,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students study differential calculus for functions of one variable, with applications emphasizing the physical sciences. Topics include calculation and interpretation of limits and derivatives; curve sketching; optimization and related-rate problems; l'Hospital's rule; linear approximation and Newton's method. Prerequisites: Pre-calculus 12 with a minimum grade of 67% (C+) or MATH 0610 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 0630 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 0633 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 1000 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 1001 with a minimum grade of C-
Note: Students can get credit for only one of the following MATH 1130, MATH 1140, MATH 1141, MATH 1150, MATH 1157, MATH 1170 or MATH 1171.
For more information, search for this course here.

or
MATH 1170
Calculus for Business and Economics (3,1.5,0)

MATH 1170 Calculus for Business and Economics (3,1.5,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

This course is intended for Business and Economics students. Topics include calculation and interpretation of derivatives, curve sketching, optimization (applied to business and economics), multivariable functions (including partial derivatives, optimization and Lagrange multipliers).
Prerequisite: Pre-calculus 12 with a minimum grade of 67% (C+) or MATH 0610 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 0630 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 0633 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 1000 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 1001 with a minimum grade of C- or MATH 1070 with a minimum grade of C-
Note: Students can get credit for only one of the following MATH 1130, MATH 1140, MATH 1141, MATH 1150, MATH 1157, MATH 1170 or MATH 1171.
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 1900
Principles of Microeconomics (3,0,0)

ECON 1900 Principles of Microeconomics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the interactions between individuals and firms in various types of markets. Topics include a definition of economics; demand and supply analysis; consumer theory; production and cost; market structure including perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly; market efficiency and market failure; resource markets; and international trade.
Prerequisite: Foundations of Mathematics 11 or Pre-calculus Math 11 with a minimum B OR MATH 0510 or MATH 0530 or equivalent. Completion of one Foundations of Mathematics 12, or Pre-calculus 12 is highly recommended
Note: Students cannot receive credit for both ECON 1900 and ECON 1901
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 1950
Principles of Macroeconomics (3,0,0)

ECON 1950 Principles of Macroeconomics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine economic behaviour at the aggregate level, and the measurement and determination of national income. Topics include an introduction to economics; measuring macroeconomic variables including gross domestic product, unemployment, and inflation; the Keynesian model; aggregate demand and supply; money and banking; the money market; fiscal policy; monetary policy and the central bank; exchange rates and the balance of payments; and economic growth.
Prerequisite: Foundations of Mathematics 11 or Pre-calculus Math 11 with a minimum B or MATH 0510 or MATH 0530 or equivalent. Completion of one Foundations of Mathematics 12, or Pre-calculus 12 is highly recommended
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 2320
Economics and Business Statistics 1 (3,0,0)

ECON 2320 Economics and Business Statistics 1 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to statistics with an emphasis on its applications in business and economics. Topics include descriptive statistics and numerical measures; an introduction to probability; discrete and continuous probability distributions; sampling and sampling distributions; interval estimations; and testing hypotheses and statistical inferences.
Prerequisite: ECON 1220 or ECON 1900 and ECON 1950
Note:Students cannot receive credit for more than one of MATH 1200, STAT 1200, STAT 2000, ECON 2320, PSYC 2100, SOCI 2710, BIOL 3000, and SOCI 3710
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 2900
Intermediate Microeconomics 1 (3,0,0)

ECON 2900 Intermediate Microeconomics 1 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine at a more advanced level how individuals and firms interact in various types of markets. Topics include consumer and producer behaviour; partial equilibrium analysis for perfectly competitive markets; and aspects of monopoly and imperfectly competitive markets. This course prepares students for advanced courses in economics.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900 or ECON 1901 and MATH 1170
Note: Students cannot credit for more than one of ECON 2900, BUEC 2040, BUEC 2041
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 2950
Intermediate Macroeconomics 1 (3,0,0)

ECON 2950 Intermediate Macroeconomics 1 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students complete an advanced, in-depth examination of economic behaviour at the aggregate level. Topics include the determination and distribution of output in the long run; the classical dichotomy and neutrality of money; the measurement, problems, and determinants of unemployment and inflation in the long run; and the role of capital accumulation, population growth, and technology in growth theory.
Prerequisite: ECON 1950 or ECON 1951
For more information, search for this course here.

Arts Elective
ANTH 1210
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (2,1,0)

ANTH 1210 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (2,1,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

A general introduction to cultural anthropology. The course is a survey of the main features of nonindustrial societies in various parts of the world. Subjects to be considered are: economy, political organization, kinship and marriage, forms of religious devotion.
Prerequisite: None.
For more information, search for this course here.

CMNS 2290
Technical Communication (3,0,0)

CMNS 2290 Technical Communication (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students study a variety of technical communications used to document professional activity, including proposals, technical and formal reports, policies and procedures, technical descriptions and definitions, and instructions. Students learn the importance of documentation and accountability as part of professional due diligence, applicable across many fields including journalism, business, government, public service, consulting and research institutes. Students develop skills in assessing communication needs in a scenario, identifying communication goals, audience need and relevant media. Finally, students learn skills in research and synthesis to ensure professional engagement and presentation of research material. Prerequisites: CMNS 1291 OR CMNS 1290 OR ENGL 1100 OR ENGL 1101 OR CMNS 1810
Note: Students cannot receive credit for more than one of CMNS 2290, ENGL 2290 AND CMNS 2291
For more information, search for this course here.

GEOG 1110
World Regional Geography (3,0,0)

GEOG 1110 World Regional Geography (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

This course applies the core concepts of geography to interpret both the variety and distinctiveness of places and regions and to their relationships, connections, and integration. It introduces students to the academic discipline of geography as well as its professional applications by explaining geographic approaches to social issues. Students obtain an appreciation for geographic thinking, and greater understanding of the complex modern world.
For more information, search for this course here.

GEOG 2110
Geography of the Economic Landscape (2,1,0)

GEOG 2110 Geography of the Economic Landscape (2,1,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

A geographic view of economic activity is offered in this course. Students examine economic interrelationships, the character of various economic regions, and general spatial organization, on a local, regional and global scale.
For more information, search for this course here.

HIST 1220
History of Canada, 1867 to the Present (2,1,0)

HIST 1220 History of Canada, 1867 to the Present (2,1,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the political, social, military, and cultural history of Canada since 1867. Topic include state formation, relations with Britain and the United States, military engagements, social movements, regional and ethnic diversity, Aboriginal history, industrialization and urbanization, and French-English relations.
For more information, search for this course here.

PHIL 1110
Introduction to Critical Thinking (3,0,0)

PHIL 1110 Introduction to Critical Thinking (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students access the basic blocks of knowledge building through an exploration of logical analysis. Students use the philosophical methodology of argument analysis to navigate issues presented in natural language and to resolve real world problems. Students examine the meaning of logical terms and philosophically investigate their contribution to arguments. Students give considerable attention to representing the logical structure of arguments and discovering their validity or invalidity.
Note: Students cannot receive credit for more than one of PHIL 1110, PHIL 1111.
For more information, search for this course here.

PHIL 2010
Introduction to Ethics (3,0,0)

PHIL 2010 Introduction to Ethics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Ethics is the philosophical examination of 'the good life', or the kind of life that is most worth living. It is also the study of the values by which we live, and the values of others. Students explore questions of right and wrong (morality), consider the place of morality in life as a whole, and whether life has meaning. In particular, students discuss the nature and origin of morality, and to what extent being moral is necessary to living a good life.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 1110
The Government and Politics of Canada (3,0,0)

POLI 1110 The Government and Politics of Canada (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are first introduced to the main processes, structures, and institutions of the Canadian government including the Constitution, the Prime Minister and cabinet, Parliament, federalism, and the party system. Students are then introduced to key political issues in Canada including social cleavages, policy debates, differing political ideologies, and Indigenous-settler relations. Students gain an understanding of how Canadian politics and government change over time and gain the tools for engaging in ongoing learning as political issues continue to affect their personal and professional lives.
Note: Students may only receive credit for one of POLI 1110 or POLI 1111.
For more information, search for this course here.

POLI 1210
Introduction to Contemporary Politics (3,0,0)

POLI 1210 Introduction to Contemporary Politics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the major systems of political ideas, institutions, and structures that have shaped the modern world. Students analyze these ideologies and systems from the perspective of their historical, comparative, and philosophical antecedents, contemporary relevance, and place in the Canadian political experience. Students gain an understanding of diverse perspectives and can more informatively engage with those who bring varied viewpoints, knowledge, and tools to solving political, social, and economic issues.
For more information, search for this course here.

Any second year POLI course
PSYC 1110
Introduction to Psychology 1 (3,0,0)

PSYC 1110 Introduction to Psychology 1 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students explore how psychology has informed our understanding of human thought and behavior from historical to contemporary times. They examine the ways in which psychological research methods differ from other ways of knowing; investigate how psychological science can identify limits to human knowledge including their own; explore common misconceptions about the causes of human behavior; and consider the real-world consequences of not addressing such misconceptions. Students skillfully apply insights from psychological research concerning heredity and experience, neurobiology, consciousness, sensation and perception, learning, and memory to everyday situations so that they are equipped to achieve their goals in adaptive ways.
Note: Students cannot get credit for more than one of PSYC 1110, PSYC 1111
For more information, search for this course here.

SOCI 1110
Introduction to Sociology I (3,0,0)

SOCI 1110 Introduction to Sociology I (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students learn the core concepts of the discipline of sociology by examining key topics (such as culture, socialization, social interaction, social roles, and social structure) that allow us to locate ourselves within society. Students also explore theoretical perspectives within sociology and the fundamentals of the sociological research methods.
Note: Students cannot receive credit for both SOCI 1110 and SOCI 1111.
For more information, search for this course here.

SPEE 1500
Speech Communications (3,0,0)

SPEE 1500 Speech Communications (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

This is a performance-oriented course designed to present students with a study of the oral communication process, and the presentational skills required in the preparation of effective oral communications.
For more information, search for this course here.

SPEE 2500
Professional Presentations (3,0,0)

SPEE 2500 Professional Presentations (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

This course presents the communication skills necessary to plan and conduct presentations effectively. A wide range of presentation skills are developed and practiced in the course, including introductions, advocacy, informational sessions, public readings, demonstration skills, and interviewing.
Prerequisite: 3 credits of English, Communications or Journalism, or permission of the department chair
For more information, search for this course here.

Above are all recommended

Upper Level Requirements (30 credits)

ECON 3330
Applied Statistics for Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3330 Applied Statistics for Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students study advanced statistical techniques and methods and their applications in business and economics. Topics include inferences about population variance, including hypothesis testing and confidence intervals; analysis of variance and experimental designs; simple and multiple regressions; time series analysis and forecasting. Students are required to apply statistical techniques using Excel and/or Minitab.
Prerequisite: ECON 1220 or ECON 1900 and ECON 1950; ECON 2320; MIST 2610
Exclusion: BUEC 2330, BUEC 3101, BUEC 3330, ECON 2330, ECON 2331, STAT 2410
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3900
Intermediate Microeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

ECON 3900 Intermediate Microeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students continue to study intermediate topics in partial and general equilibrium analysis. Topics include consumer choice under different scenarios, factor markets, game theory, imperfect competition, general equilibrium analysis and welfare economics, public goods, and externalities.
Prerequisite: ECON 2900; MATH 1170 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

or
ECON 3950
Intermediate Macroeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

ECON 3950 Intermediate Macroeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students continue to study short-run macroeconomic theory and its applications to contemporary policy issues. Topics include an overview of macroeconomics; macroeconomic data; the open economy; economic fluctuations; aggregate demand, including investment savings-liquidity preference money supply (IS-LM) curves; aggregate supply, including the Phillips curve; economic stabilization and the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy; and money supply and demand.
Prerequisite: ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

Upper Level Economics Electives

At least eight courses (24 credits) from the following:
ECON 3100
Canadian Financial Markets (3,0,0)

ECON 3100 Canadian Financial Markets (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to money, banking, and the Canadian financial system. Topics include an overview of financial markets, interest rates and the structure of interest rates, the efficiency of financial markets, financial regulation, banks and other financial institutions, financial institutions risk management, the role of the central bank, the money supply, and monetary policy.
Prerequisite: ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3200
Introduction to Mathematical Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3200 Introduction to Mathematical Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the mathematical methods and tools most commonly used in analyzing economic problems. Topics include a review of set theory, functions, and limits; linear models and matrix algebra; application of single and multivariable calculus; unconstrained and constrained optimization; integration and difference and differential equations; application of dynamic analysis; and linear and non-linear programing.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950; MATH 1170 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3410
Economics of Climate Change (3,0,0)

ECON 3410 Economics of Climate Change (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students investigate the climatic changes resulting from global warming and the policy actions being taken to address these problems. Topics include an overview of the science and economics of climate change; the impact of climate change on growth and economic development; the economics of stabilization including efficiency, externalities, public goods, and environmental policy instruments; inter-temporal decisions and uncertainties about the impacts of climate change; the policy responses to mitigation and adaption and their cost; international collective action and its challenges; and prominent climate policy approaches, such as the United Nations Framework Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3500
Public Finance (3,0,0)

ECON 3500 Public Finance (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the rationale for government intervention in a market economy, the assessment of public policy, and the impact of government expenditures and taxation on the economy and the citizenry. Topics include government activities, externalities, public goods, social security, fiscal deficits and public debt, principles of taxation, incidence and effects of taxation, and optimal taxation.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3550
International Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3550 International Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students analyze the movement of capital, goods, and services across international boundaries and assess their financial impact. With advances in transportation and communication, greater outsourcing, and increased globalization, trade, and foreign direct investment, the corresponding capital movements are becoming much more important to the global economy. Topics include the theories of absolute and comparative advantage; modern theories of trade, including factor-proportions; tariff and non-tariff barriers; current and capital accounts; exchange rate determination; balance of payments and exchange rate policy; evolution of the international monetary system; and trade and economic development.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3600
Labour Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3600 Labour Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students analyze how individuals, families, firms, and governments operate within a contemporary labour market, and the impact of labour market institutions and government policy. Topics include an overview of the labour market; labour demand and elasticities; the effect of quasi-fixed labour costs on demand; labour supply and the decision to work; labour supply and household production; compensating wage differentials and labour markets; education and training; worker mobility; pay and productivity; gender, race, and inequality in earnings; and unions and the labour market.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3610
The Economics of Gender (3,0,0)

ECON 3610 The Economics of Gender (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students use economic theory and analysis in an attempt to explain why gender differences lead to different outcomes in education, career choices, family roles, and earnings. A comparison is made of the economic status of women relative to men throughout the world, with special emphasis on similarities and differences between Canada and other economically advanced nations. Topics include marriage and family; the economics of fertility; women at work; women's earnings, occupation, and education; the gender gap in earnings; women's employment and earnings; family policy; and women in developing countries.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3650
Government and Business (3,0,0)

ECON 3650 Government and Business (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students utilize neoclassical and institutional economic theory to examine government intervention in the economy. Topics include competition and economic efficiency; market failure; institutional theory; private sector governance structures; the role of the state; public sector governance structures, including competition policy, price and entry regulation, prevention of anti-competitive practices, and public enterprise and ownership; and government failure.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950 or POLI 1110
Note: Students may not receive credit for both ECON 3650 and POLI 3650
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3670
Economic Analysis of Law (3,0,0)

ECON 3670 Economic Analysis of Law (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students explore and analyze legal issues from an economic perspective; economists focus primarily on whether particular legal doctrines, concepts, and processes are efficient. Topics include an introduction to the law, legal institutions, and procedures, as well as economic theory relating to property law, contracts, torts, criminal law, and general legal processes.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3690
Community Economic Development (3,0,0)

ECON 3690 Community Economic Development (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students investigate methods for effectively using local community resources to enhance economic opportunities while improving social conditions in a sustainable way. Topics include the theoretical basis for community economic development (CED), analytical techniques used to assess communities, environmental sustainability objectives for community development, competing strategies of community development, financing development strategies, and CED activity in Canada and other nations.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3700
Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Economics of Project Evaluation (3,0,0)

ECON 3700 Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Economics of Project Evaluation (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine projects that are commonly evaluated using benefit-cost analysis, and the appropriate methods for determining their cost effectiveness. Topics include project evaluation techniques; measuring welfare change; correcting for market distortions using shadow wages and prices; finding the appropriate discount rate; making valid valuations that incorporate inflation and appropriate planning horizon, scrap, and spillover and secondary effects; public enterprise pricing rules; valuing intangibles; and incorporating risk and uncertainty. Case studies of projects are analyzed from a variety of areas, such as natural resources, the environment, human resources, public service, and transportation.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3710
Environmental Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3710 Environmental Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students apply the tools of microeconomic analysis to environmental issues. Topics include property rights and efficient resource use, market failure, the over-utilization of common pool resources, the Coase Theorem, non-market valuation techniques, government policies designed to cost-effectively control pollution, and real-world strategies for controlling pollution.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3730
Forestry Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3730 Forestry Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to the concepts and analytical techniques used in forestry economics and their application to forest management, conservation, and policy analysis. Topics include techniques for analyzing forestry investments; timber demand, supply, and pricing; valuation of non-marketed goods and services, such as recreation and wildlife habitat; land allocation and multiple use; forest management issues, such as planting, thinning, and optimal age of crop rotation; and regulatory issues, including allowable annual cut regulations, property rights, tenure, and taxes.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3740
Land Use Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3740 Land Use Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students focus on land use issues with particular emphasis on government policies relating to the preservation and conservation of agricultural lands. Topics include rent theory; welfare measurement; property rights and externalities; project evaluation using cost-benefit and multiple accounts analysis; the economics of soil conservation; efficiency and equity in land use planning, including zoning changes; government land preservation and conservation policies, and agricultural subsidies; water use in agriculture; forest management; and multiple uses of public lands.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3840
Economic Analysis of Health (3,0,0)

ECON 3840 Economic Analysis of Health (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students apply microeconomic tools to an analysis of the health care system, while being introduced to the major issues in health economics and the ongoing debate over health care policy. Topics include the economic determinants of health, the market for medical care, the market for health insurance, the role of the government in health care, and health care reform.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3900
Intermediate Microeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

ECON 3900 Intermediate Microeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students continue to study intermediate topics in partial and general equilibrium analysis. Topics include consumer choice under different scenarios, factor markets, game theory, imperfect competition, general equilibrium analysis and welfare economics, public goods, and externalities.
Prerequisite: ECON 2900; MATH 1170 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

or
ECON 3950
Intermediate Macroeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

ECON 3950 Intermediate Macroeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students continue to study short-run macroeconomic theory and its applications to contemporary policy issues. Topics include an overview of macroeconomics; macroeconomic data; the open economy; economic fluctuations; aggregate demand, including investment savings-liquidity preference money supply (IS-LM) curves; aggregate supply, including the Phillips curve; economic stabilization and the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy; and money supply and demand.
Prerequisite: ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3990
***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

ECON 3990 ***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

Credits: 6 credits
Delivery: Campus

The subject matter in this course varies from semester to semester depending upon the interests of faculty and students. Courses are taught by visiting professors to instill their unique perspectives or by regular faculty to address emerging topics in a discipline, share research or teaching interests, or test potential new courses. The added variety in the curriculum greatly enhances the student learning experience.
Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4100
International Financial Markets (3,0,0)

ECON 4100 International Financial Markets (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine international financial markets and institutions and their critical role in the global economy. Topics include the elements that constitute a global financial institution; types of financial institutions and markets; global market structure differences; recent market failures, their causes, and solutions; and global financial regulation and reform.
Prerequisite: BBUS 3150 or ECON 3100 or FNCE 3150 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4320
Econometrics (3,0,0)

ECON 4320 Econometrics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to econometric models and the application of classical regression techniques to estimate socio-economic relationships. Topics include an introduction to econometrics; simple linear regression; interval estimation and hypothesis testing; predictions, goodness of fit, and modeling issues; multiple regression; non-linear relationships; heteroscedasticity; dynamic models, autocorrelation, and forecasting; simultaneous equations; and qualitative dependent variables. General econometric computer software is used to reinforce course concepts.
Prerequisite: ECON 2330 or ECON 3330 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4330
Forecasting in Business and Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 4330 Forecasting in Business and Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students apply a variety of forecasting methods to solve problems in business and economics. Topics include qualitative forecasting methods; the forecasting process, data considerations, and model selection; moving averages and exponential smoothing; multiple regression and time series decomposition; Box-Jenkins methodology to fit autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH); time-varying volatility and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and vector autoregressive models; combining forecasting results; and implementing forecasting.
Prerequisite: ECON 2330 or ECON 3330 or equivalent
Exclusion: BUEC 4330
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4560
International Macroeconomics and Finance (3,0,0)

ECON 4560 International Macroeconomics and Finance (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students explore the determination of exchange rates in an open economy and policies that governments may adopt to influence their movement. Topics include balance of payments; foreign exchange markets; interaction of the money, interest rates and exchange rates; exchange rates in the long run, including purchasing power and interest rate parity; exchange rates in the short run; fixed exchange rates and foreign exchange intervention; history of the international monetary system; macroeconomic policy under floating exchange rates; and performance of global capital markets and policy issues.
Prerequisite: ECON 2330 or ECON 3330 or equivalent; ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4660
Industrial Organization (3,0,0)

ECON 4660 Industrial Organization (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the performance and operation of imperfectly competitive markets, as well as the behavior of firms in these markets. They attempt to answer big questions, such as why are firms and markets organized the way they are; how does the behavior of firms affect the structure and performance of markets; and how does the organization of markets determine how firms behave and how markets perform. Topics include theories of the firm; market structure models; strategic interaction among firms; business practices such as mergers and acquisitions, price discrimination, advertising, innovation, vertical restraints, and cartels; and new developments in industrial organization, including network issues and auction markets.
Prerequisite: ECON 2900 or ECON 3040
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4720
Sustainable Economic Development (3,0,0)

ECON 4720 Sustainable Economic Development (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine theories and issues, internal and external challenges, and alternative policy options relating to sustainable economic development. Topics include a comparative analysis of the leading theories of economic growth, development, and sustainability; lack of economic growth, poverty, and income distribution; consequences of population growth and technological change; employment and migration, human capital, agriculture, and rural development; international trade and commercial policy, foreign investment, and aid; and global integration, economic transition, and environmental degradation.
Prerequisite: ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4960
Directed Studies in Economics (0,3,0) or (0,3,0)(0,3,0)

ECON 4960 Directed Studies in Economics (0,3,0) or (0,3,0)(0,3,0)

Credits: 6 credits
Delivery: Campus

Individuals or groups of students engage in independent study, research, or practice related to a topic in economics under faculty supervision. The supervisor(s) determines the appropriate curriculum, evaluation methods, and credit assignment in consultation with the student(s) and subject to the approval of the department chairperson(s) and dean.
Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4990
***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

ECON 4990 ***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

Credits: 6 credits
Delivery: Campus

The subject matter in this course varies from semester to semester depending upon the interests of faculty and students. Courses are taught by visiting professors to instill their unique perspectives or by regular faculty to address emerging topics in a discipline, share research or teaching interests, or test potential new courses. The added variety in the curriculum greatly enhances the student learning experience.
Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor
For more information, search for this course here.

Upper level courses in ECON may not be offered every year. Contact an academic advisor to determine what is being scheduled in the coming semesters.

 Minor requirements

For those students wanting only an exposure to economics, an economics minor is available.

The minor in economics requires the completion of at least 30 credits in economics, including ECON 1900 and ECON 1950, and a minimum of 18 credits must be at the upper level (3000 and 4000 level).

Lower Level Requirements

ECON 1900
Principles of Microeconomics (3,0,0)

ECON 1900 Principles of Microeconomics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the interactions between individuals and firms in various types of markets. Topics include a definition of economics; demand and supply analysis; consumer theory; production and cost; market structure including perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly; market efficiency and market failure; resource markets; and international trade.
Prerequisite: Foundations of Mathematics 11 or Pre-calculus Math 11 with a minimum B OR MATH 0510 or MATH 0530 or equivalent. Completion of one Foundations of Mathematics 12, or Pre-calculus 12 is highly recommended
Note: Students cannot receive credit for both ECON 1900 and ECON 1901
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 1950
Principles of Macroeconomics (3,0,0)

ECON 1950 Principles of Macroeconomics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine economic behaviour at the aggregate level, and the measurement and determination of national income. Topics include an introduction to economics; measuring macroeconomic variables including gross domestic product, unemployment, and inflation; the Keynesian model; aggregate demand and supply; money and banking; the money market; fiscal policy; monetary policy and the central bank; exchange rates and the balance of payments; and economic growth.
Prerequisite: Foundations of Mathematics 11 or Pre-calculus Math 11 with a minimum B or MATH 0510 or MATH 0530 or equivalent. Completion of one Foundations of Mathematics 12, or Pre-calculus 12 is highly recommended
For more information, search for this course here.

Upper Level Economics Electives

At least six courses (18 credits) from the following:
ECON 3100
Canadian Financial Markets (3,0,0)

ECON 3100 Canadian Financial Markets (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to money, banking, and the Canadian financial system. Topics include an overview of financial markets, interest rates and the structure of interest rates, the efficiency of financial markets, financial regulation, banks and other financial institutions, financial institutions risk management, the role of the central bank, the money supply, and monetary policy.
Prerequisite: ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3200
Introduction to Mathematical Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3200 Introduction to Mathematical Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the mathematical methods and tools most commonly used in analyzing economic problems. Topics include a review of set theory, functions, and limits; linear models and matrix algebra; application of single and multivariable calculus; unconstrained and constrained optimization; integration and difference and differential equations; application of dynamic analysis; and linear and non-linear programing.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950; MATH 1170 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3410
Economics of Climate Change (3,0,0)

ECON 3410 Economics of Climate Change (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students investigate the climatic changes resulting from global warming and the policy actions being taken to address these problems. Topics include an overview of the science and economics of climate change; the impact of climate change on growth and economic development; the economics of stabilization including efficiency, externalities, public goods, and environmental policy instruments; inter-temporal decisions and uncertainties about the impacts of climate change; the policy responses to mitigation and adaption and their cost; international collective action and its challenges; and prominent climate policy approaches, such as the United Nations Framework Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3500
Public Finance (3,0,0)

ECON 3500 Public Finance (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the rationale for government intervention in a market economy, the assessment of public policy, and the impact of government expenditures and taxation on the economy and the citizenry. Topics include government activities, externalities, public goods, social security, fiscal deficits and public debt, principles of taxation, incidence and effects of taxation, and optimal taxation.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3550
International Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3550 International Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students analyze the movement of capital, goods, and services across international boundaries and assess their financial impact. With advances in transportation and communication, greater outsourcing, and increased globalization, trade, and foreign direct investment, the corresponding capital movements are becoming much more important to the global economy. Topics include the theories of absolute and comparative advantage; modern theories of trade, including factor-proportions; tariff and non-tariff barriers; current and capital accounts; exchange rate determination; balance of payments and exchange rate policy; evolution of the international monetary system; and trade and economic development.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3600
Labour Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3600 Labour Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students analyze how individuals, families, firms, and governments operate within a contemporary labour market, and the impact of labour market institutions and government policy. Topics include an overview of the labour market; labour demand and elasticities; the effect of quasi-fixed labour costs on demand; labour supply and the decision to work; labour supply and household production; compensating wage differentials and labour markets; education and training; worker mobility; pay and productivity; gender, race, and inequality in earnings; and unions and the labour market.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3610
The Economics of Gender (3,0,0)

ECON 3610 The Economics of Gender (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students use economic theory and analysis in an attempt to explain why gender differences lead to different outcomes in education, career choices, family roles, and earnings. A comparison is made of the economic status of women relative to men throughout the world, with special emphasis on similarities and differences between Canada and other economically advanced nations. Topics include marriage and family; the economics of fertility; women at work; women's earnings, occupation, and education; the gender gap in earnings; women's employment and earnings; family policy; and women in developing countries.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3650
Government and Business (3,0,0)

ECON 3650 Government and Business (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students utilize neoclassical and institutional economic theory to examine government intervention in the economy. Topics include competition and economic efficiency; market failure; institutional theory; private sector governance structures; the role of the state; public sector governance structures, including competition policy, price and entry regulation, prevention of anti-competitive practices, and public enterprise and ownership; and government failure.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950 or POLI 1110
Note: Students may not receive credit for both ECON 3650 and POLI 3650
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3670
Economic Analysis of Law (3,0,0)

ECON 3670 Economic Analysis of Law (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students explore and analyze legal issues from an economic perspective; economists focus primarily on whether particular legal doctrines, concepts, and processes are efficient. Topics include an introduction to the law, legal institutions, and procedures, as well as economic theory relating to property law, contracts, torts, criminal law, and general legal processes.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3690
Community Economic Development (3,0,0)

ECON 3690 Community Economic Development (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students investigate methods for effectively using local community resources to enhance economic opportunities while improving social conditions in a sustainable way. Topics include the theoretical basis for community economic development (CED), analytical techniques used to assess communities, environmental sustainability objectives for community development, competing strategies of community development, financing development strategies, and CED activity in Canada and other nations.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900; ECON 1950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3700
Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Economics of Project Evaluation (3,0,0)

ECON 3700 Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Economics of Project Evaluation (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine projects that are commonly evaluated using benefit-cost analysis, and the appropriate methods for determining their cost effectiveness. Topics include project evaluation techniques; measuring welfare change; correcting for market distortions using shadow wages and prices; finding the appropriate discount rate; making valid valuations that incorporate inflation and appropriate planning horizon, scrap, and spillover and secondary effects; public enterprise pricing rules; valuing intangibles; and incorporating risk and uncertainty. Case studies of projects are analyzed from a variety of areas, such as natural resources, the environment, human resources, public service, and transportation.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3710
Environmental Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3710 Environmental Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students apply the tools of microeconomic analysis to environmental issues. Topics include property rights and efficient resource use, market failure, the over-utilization of common pool resources, the Coase Theorem, non-market valuation techniques, government policies designed to cost-effectively control pollution, and real-world strategies for controlling pollution.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3730
Forestry Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3730 Forestry Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to the concepts and analytical techniques used in forestry economics and their application to forest management, conservation, and policy analysis. Topics include techniques for analyzing forestry investments; timber demand, supply, and pricing; valuation of non-marketed goods and services, such as recreation and wildlife habitat; land allocation and multiple use; forest management issues, such as planting, thinning, and optimal age of crop rotation; and regulatory issues, including allowable annual cut regulations, property rights, tenure, and taxes.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3740
Land Use Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 3740 Land Use Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students focus on land use issues with particular emphasis on government policies relating to the preservation and conservation of agricultural lands. Topics include rent theory; welfare measurement; property rights and externalities; project evaluation using cost-benefit and multiple accounts analysis; the economics of soil conservation; efficiency and equity in land use planning, including zoning changes; government land preservation and conservation policies, and agricultural subsidies; water use in agriculture; forest management; and multiple uses of public lands.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3840
Economic Analysis of Health (3,0,0)

ECON 3840 Economic Analysis of Health (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students apply microeconomic tools to an analysis of the health care system, while being introduced to the major issues in health economics and the ongoing debate over health care policy. Topics include the economic determinants of health, the market for medical care, the market for health insurance, the role of the government in health care, and health care reform.
Prerequisite: ECON 1900
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3900
Intermediate Microeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

ECON 3900 Intermediate Microeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students continue to study intermediate topics in partial and general equilibrium analysis. Topics include consumer choice under different scenarios, factor markets, game theory, imperfect competition, general equilibrium analysis and welfare economics, public goods, and externalities.
Prerequisite: ECON 2900; MATH 1170 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3950
Intermediate Macroeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

ECON 3950 Intermediate Macroeconomics 2 (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students continue to study short-run macroeconomic theory and its applications to contemporary policy issues. Topics include an overview of macroeconomics; macroeconomic data; the open economy; economic fluctuations; aggregate demand, including investment savings-liquidity preference money supply (IS-LM) curves; aggregate supply, including the Phillips curve; economic stabilization and the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy; and money supply and demand.
Prerequisite: ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 3990
***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

ECON 3990 ***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

Credits: 6 credits
Delivery: Campus

The subject matter in this course varies from semester to semester depending upon the interests of faculty and students. Courses are taught by visiting professors to instill their unique perspectives or by regular faculty to address emerging topics in a discipline, share research or teaching interests, or test potential new courses. The added variety in the curriculum greatly enhances the student learning experience.
Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4100
International Financial Markets (3,0,0)

ECON 4100 International Financial Markets (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine international financial markets and institutions and their critical role in the global economy. Topics include the elements that constitute a global financial institution; types of financial institutions and markets; global market structure differences; recent market failures, their causes, and solutions; and global financial regulation and reform.
Prerequisite: BBUS 3150 or ECON 3100 or FNCE 3150 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4320
Econometrics (3,0,0)

ECON 4320 Econometrics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students are introduced to econometric models and the application of classical regression techniques to estimate socio-economic relationships. Topics include an introduction to econometrics; simple linear regression; interval estimation and hypothesis testing; predictions, goodness of fit, and modeling issues; multiple regression; non-linear relationships; heteroscedasticity; dynamic models, autocorrelation, and forecasting; simultaneous equations; and qualitative dependent variables. General econometric computer software is used to reinforce course concepts.
Prerequisite: ECON 2330 or ECON 3330 or equivalent
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4330
Forecasting in Business and Economics (3,0,0)

ECON 4330 Forecasting in Business and Economics (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students apply a variety of forecasting methods to solve problems in business and economics. Topics include qualitative forecasting methods; the forecasting process, data considerations, and model selection; moving averages and exponential smoothing; multiple regression and time series decomposition; Box-Jenkins methodology to fit autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH); time-varying volatility and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and vector autoregressive models; combining forecasting results; and implementing forecasting.
Prerequisite: ECON 2330 or ECON 3330 or equivalent
Exclusion: BUEC 4330
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4560
International Macroeconomics and Finance (3,0,0)

ECON 4560 International Macroeconomics and Finance (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students explore the determination of exchange rates in an open economy and policies that governments may adopt to influence their movement. Topics include balance of payments; foreign exchange markets; interaction of the money, interest rates and exchange rates; exchange rates in the long run, including purchasing power and interest rate parity; exchange rates in the short run; fixed exchange rates and foreign exchange intervention; history of the international monetary system; macroeconomic policy under floating exchange rates; and performance of global capital markets and policy issues.
Prerequisite: ECON 2330 or ECON 3330 or equivalent; ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4660
Industrial Organization (3,0,0)

ECON 4660 Industrial Organization (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine the performance and operation of imperfectly competitive markets, as well as the behavior of firms in these markets. They attempt to answer big questions, such as why are firms and markets organized the way they are; how does the behavior of firms affect the structure and performance of markets; and how does the organization of markets determine how firms behave and how markets perform. Topics include theories of the firm; market structure models; strategic interaction among firms; business practices such as mergers and acquisitions, price discrimination, advertising, innovation, vertical restraints, and cartels; and new developments in industrial organization, including network issues and auction markets.
Prerequisite: ECON 2900 or ECON 3040
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4720
Sustainable Economic Development (3,0,0)

ECON 4720 Sustainable Economic Development (3,0,0)

Credits: 3 credits
Delivery: Campus

Students examine theories and issues, internal and external challenges, and alternative policy options relating to sustainable economic development. Topics include a comparative analysis of the leading theories of economic growth, development, and sustainability; lack of economic growth, poverty, and income distribution; consequences of population growth and technological change; employment and migration, human capital, agriculture, and rural development; international trade and commercial policy, foreign investment, and aid; and global integration, economic transition, and environmental degradation.
Prerequisite: ECON 2950
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4960
Directed Studies in Economics (0,3,0) or (0,3,0)(0,3,0)

ECON 4960 Directed Studies in Economics (0,3,0) or (0,3,0)(0,3,0)

Credits: 6 credits
Delivery: Campus

Individuals or groups of students engage in independent study, research, or practice related to a topic in economics under faculty supervision. The supervisor(s) determines the appropriate curriculum, evaluation methods, and credit assignment in consultation with the student(s) and subject to the approval of the department chairperson(s) and dean.
Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor
For more information, search for this course here.

ECON 4990
***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

ECON 4990 ***Selected Topics in Economics (3,0,0) or (6,0,0)

Credits: 6 credits
Delivery: Campus

The subject matter in this course varies from semester to semester depending upon the interests of faculty and students. Courses are taught by visiting professors to instill their unique perspectives or by regular faculty to address emerging topics in a discipline, share research or teaching interests, or test potential new courses. The added variety in the curriculum greatly enhances the student learning experience.
Prerequisite: Permission of the program advisor
For more information, search for this course here.

Upper level courses in ECON may not be offered every year. Contact an academic advisor to determine what is being scheduled in the coming semesters.


 

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